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Sleep qualitative parameters using actigraphy analysis in a representative sample from the São Paulo city – EPISONO study: a comparison among age groups.


Sleeping habits vary as we get older. Problems in initiating sleep, decreased sleep quality and morningness are expected characteristics for older individuals. Considering the potential of actigraphy as a simple, non-invasive, and more affordable method, this research proposes to examine actigraphy data collected during the fourth edition of EPISONO (carried out in 2018), comparing 3 different age groups within this sample.


Analyze the actigraphy records from a representative sample from the São Paulo city population to evaluate possible differences related to aging.


This study analyzed data from sleep diaries and actigraphy records from 783 participants, collected continuously for 10 days. The actigraphy signals returned nine sleep parameters, including Bedtime (BT), Wake up Time (WT), Latency, Total Sleep Time (TST), Total Time in Bed (TTB) and Sleep Efficiency (SE). The data were analyzed using a General Linear Model with the ActStudio 1.0.17 software.


Only data from 654 participants were included in the analysis. The mean sample age was 48.74±14.72 years old (range from 20 to 80 years). The sample was stratified according to the age into 3 subgroups, using the National Sleep Foundation’s reference: 18-24 years (N=15 male; 19 female); 25-64 years (N=226 male; 286 female); and 65+ years (N=35 male; 73 female). We observed a statistical difference on BT (p<0.001) and WT (p<0.001) when compared the youngest group (18-25) to the older ones (25-64 and 65+). The younger individuals went to bed and wake up at least one hour after the other 2 groups. When the 2 groups of older individuals were compared, no statistical differences were observed. The 18-25 years group went to bed between 23:30 and 02:40 (Mean±SD=01:03±01:39) and the 65+ group went between 22:00 and 01:00 (Mean±SD=23:31±01:24). Concerning the WT, the younger group woke between 07:00 and 11:00 (Mean±SD=08:56±01:59), and the older group woke between 06:30 and 08:00 (Mean±SD=07:46±01:11). All groups had similar SE (88.21±6.745), TST (7h11±1h09) and TTB (7h28±2h12), on average.


Although being similar regarding sleep efficiency, total sleep time and total time in bed, we observed a clear difference between the 3 ages groups at bedtime and wake up time, especially when comparing groups of 18-25 with older ones. This result highlights the contrast in sleeping habits during life.


Actigraphy. Sleep. EPISONO. Age.


Área Básica


Universidade Federal de São Paulo - São Paulo - Brasil


Catharina Maria Carvalho Scassola, Pâmela Caroline Silva, Julia Ribeiroda Silva Vallim, Monica Levy Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Vânia D'Almeida