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CHRONOTYPE INFLUENCE ON THE SLEEP PATTERN AND PHYSICAL/ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL
Chronotype refers to circadian rhythm manifestation of several physiological processes, including sleep-wake pattern. There are two main chronotypes: evening-type and morning-type, with most people lying somewhere in between, called intermediate. The sleep-wake cycle in medical students is modulated by an exhaustic routine alternating between hospital activities and many hours of study, which make them a vulnerable group to develop sleep disorders and to have their academic and physical performance impaired.
To verify the influence of medical students chronotype on their sleep pattern and academic/physical performance.
This is an observational and cross-sectional study anddata was collected using the Google Forms program. Statistical analyses were performed to compare participants’ sleep chronotype in respect to sex, age, physical activity frequency, average grade, and presence of somnolence and insomnia.
There were 32 students classified as a morning, 55 as intermediate and 37 as evening-type. A one-way analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences among the group means in Epworth Sleep Scale scores [Welch´s F(2, 70.5) = 5.40, p < .01] and in Insomnia Severity Index scores [Welch´s F(2, 72.4) = 7.21, p = .001]. The morning-type group had significantly lower ESS scores than intermediate-type (M = -1.93, p < .05) and evening-type (M = -2.87, p < .01) groups. Differences in ISI scores were also observed between morning group and intermediate (M = -2.90, p < .05) and evening-type (M = -4.60, p < .001) with the last group presenting higher scores. Intermediate chronotype are nearly 1.4 times more likely to practice physical activity than evening-type students (χ2(1) = 6.85, p < .01, RR = 1.44). Other variables presented no statistical difference.
Our results may explain behaviors and complaints observed in medical students. Morning-type are used to sleeping early, having an appropriate total sleep time and consequently less daily somnolence, which could improve physical activity practice. On the other hand, evening-type students are more susceptible to present insomnia maybe due to their late sleep predisposition. In addition, they have to wake up early, leading to sleep deprivation, more daily somnolence and less willingness to practice physical activity. Despite these differences observed among the groups, academic performance remained unaltered.
sleep, chronotype, insomnia.
HCFMUSP - São Paulo - Brasil
RAFAELA REGIS BERARDO CUNHA, Lara Oliveira Trigo, Marwin Machay Indio Brasil Carmo, Renatha Rafihi-Ferreira, Andrea Cecilia Toscanini