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Presence of comorbidities in patients diagnosed with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is a disorder that impairs the quality of life and is related to several clinical conditions. Patients with this syndrome are often subject to comorbidities.
The study aims to analyze the presence and prevalence of clinical comorbidities in a sample of patients with OSAHS.
A retrospective study was carried out based on the analysis of a database of 421 patients who were diagnosed with OSAHS through polysomnography performed at a tertiary care center in Porto Alegre between January 2017 and August 2021. Only patients who had an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) greater than or equal to 5 events/hour were included in this analysis. The variables evaluated included comorbidities such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism, depression and nasal symptoms.
Based on the analysis performed, it was possible to measure the prevalence of the following comorbidities among the population analyzed: Obesity (58.2%), Systemic Arterial Hypertension (65.1%), Diabetes Mellitus (35.2%), Dyslipidemia ( 33.5%), Nasal symptoms (23.8%), Depression (23.5%), COPD (18.11%), Ischemic heart disease (16.4%), Asthma (15%), Hypothyroidism (12.6%), Heart Failure (12.4%), and Cardiac Arrhythmia (2.9%). Adding to these descriptive data, it was also possible to affirm, through statistical analysis, that the presence of obesity was significantly associated with the severe degree of OSAHS.
Based on this sample, it is possible to conclude that there is a high prevalence of comorbidities in patients with OSAHS, with several patients having more than one of them concurrently. The literature still lacks studies that can state whether such comorbidities have a cause-and-effect relationship and how much the treatment of OSAHS would influence the improvement of these clinical conditions. Even so, it is essential to identify and manage these diseases together. The importance of understanding the comorbidities associated with OSAHS reinforces the value of early recognition and indication of appropriate treatment.
“Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome”, “Obesity”, “Comorbidities”.
Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre - Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil
Joana Lunardi, Ronaldo Cesar Barros Pinto, Aline Tiemi Hiose Ventura, Fernanda Altmann Oliveira, Carlos Javier Mendonza Bravo, Fabíola Schorr, Eduardo Garcia