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Dietary inflammatory Index and diet quality of obese individuals with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is directly related to obesity and both conditions are associated with systemic inflammation. It is known that diet can contribute positively or negatively to inflammatory states, being an important modifiable factor in this relationship. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) has been extensively used to access the inflammatory profile of the diet.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary inflammatory profile and diet quality of obese individuals with OSA.
It was included in the study forty “obese’’ male individuals with OSA. All participants underwent nocturnal polysomnography, anthropometric measurements, body composition by plethysmography, assessment of food consumption by three day food records, and blood collection for lipid, glycidic and hormonal profile dosages. Food consumption data were evaluated qualitatively and semiquantitatively based on the NOVA classification. In addition, a quantitative assessment of food consumption and calculation of the DII were performed.
The results demonstrate that obese men with OSA have a pro-inflammatory dietary profile (1,109±1,369) with minimun value of -2,791 and a maximum value of 3,66. A higher frequency in the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods was verified (8,23±2,9), in relation to processed and ultra-processed foods, despite the low consumption of vegetables. Also, a low consumption of fiber, magnesium, vitamin D and vitamin E was observed, although an adequate distribution of macronutrients. No significant correlations were found between DII and sleep parameters. The consumption of fresh foods was positively associated with the percentage of NREM (Non rapid eye movements) stage 3 sleep (β=1,006; r2=0,336; p=0,034) and negatively associated with the number of mixed apneas throughout the night (β=-9,909; r2=-0,339; p=0,033), while the consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively associated with the number of total awakenings throughout the night (r=0,330; p=0,038).
It is concluded that the pro-inflammatory dietary profile found in obese OSA men might contribute to worsening the chronic inflammatory state associated with obesity and OSA. Although the inflammatory profile does not correlate with obstructive sleep apnea, the study showed a directly proportional relationship between adequate dietary patterns and better sleeps quality.
Obstructive sleep apnea, Dietary inflammatory index, dietary patterns, sleep.
BIANCA APARECIDA SOUSA, BEATRIZ MARTINS VICENTE, AMÁLIA ALMEIDA BASTOS, SANDRA MARIA LIMA RIBEIRO, MARCUS VINÍCIUS LUCIO DOS SANTOS QUARESMA , SERGIO TUFIK, MARCO TÚLIO DE MELLO, CAMILA MARIA MELO